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What Makes a Good Shoe? Why Current Shoe Technology Is Destroying Your Feet

What Makes a Good Shoe? Why Current Shoe Technology Is Destroying Your Feet
What makes a 'good shoe' in today's world? It seems we might be going down a nasty path. Image courtesy of the very talented @mvximoustach on Instagram.

Consider this when thinking about all the shoes you wear – they’re probably not good shoes.

No doubt they look and feel great, but what physical legacy are they leaving behind?

If they have something like a heel or arch-support they’re probably bad for you.

It’s a bold statement considering almost every Physiotherapist, Doctor, Podiatrist and shoe store attendant will likely promote the opposite. We’ll also mount a strong case I might add.

It’s important to recognize the significance of the modern shoe because it does help many feel and function better.

Yet despite these benefits, we’re potentially missing the bigger picture. BIG TIME. So much so that we might be heading off in the opposite direction to where we should be.

If we just look at things a little differently, we might see what truly makes a good shoe long-term.

The Anatomy of the Modern Shoe

Interestingly, a recent study looked at the most Googled shoes over the last 12 months (2018-2019).

From over 1,000 shoes it found the Nike Air Max 97 to be the most popular.

nike air max 97
The most searched sneaker – Nike’s Air Max 97

For posterity, here are the remaining top 10:

If you look through each of the top 10, you’ll notice they share many structural features with most other current-day shoes.

Features of Modern Shoes

  • Arch support
  • Thick sole
  • Thick heel at the back
  • Narrow forefoot
  • Relatively strong, rigid structure

Now each of these has a purpose – a mix of support, protection from the elements, cushioning and aesthetics. Each make us feel good in a number of ways, otherwise we simply wouldn’t buy them.

Yet, these bells and whistles distract us from what’s most important.

Our feet don’t need help.

Or at least they shouldn’t.

We are born with technology far more sophisticated than anything we have or maybe will develop in terms of footwear.

To be more specific, our bare feet have all the arch and heel they supposedly need. The soles of our feet are designed to contact, contour and feel the ground.

Our bare feet have all the arch and heel they supposedly needClick To Tweet

The skin is different here for a reason.

Our Achilles have an amazing ability to absorb the shock from walking, running and jumping, and it does so in harmony with the rest of the body.

The foot is both flexible and strong.

Our feet are designed to be feet. They aren’t necessarily designed to be caged, controlled and desensitized to the outside world 100% of the time.

They Make Me Feel Good So Who Cares

From what I see clinically as a Physiotherapist it seems that we have become confused as to the difference between what helps to make us feel better and what’s ultimately “optimal”.

There is absolutely nothing wrong with wearing a shoe that helps you move more and feel better – you deserve to.

But it’s very important to understand that modern shoe technology is often just compensating for something you’re missing. Something you should have but for some reason have unknowingly lost.

Modern shoe technology is often just compensating for something you're missingClick To Tweet

Something you should try and reclaim.

To highlight this let’s take one of the most easily recognizable features of most footwear, arch support.

The idea behind it is sound. Flat feet are the mechanical foundation for a lot of our foot and lower leg complaints. So we give the arch support and things improve. Problem solved, right?

Yes… and not at all.

What happens when you take those shoes off?

Arch support will stop an arch from collapsing, but it won’t stop an arch from wanting to collapse.

Arch support will stop an arch from collapsing, but it won't stop an arch from wanting to collapseClick To Tweet

It’s a symptomatic treatment not a fix.

As soon as you take them off or change to an “unsupportive” shoe the crutch is gone.

Again, this is still useful depending on your overall goals, but be aware of it’s place in the overall scheme of things.

So let’s break down what’s important to know here.

Why Do Arches Flatten?

It may surprise you to know that flat feet aren’t a foot issue, they’re a leg issue. If you have a mix of stiff ankles and tight and/or weak hips, your entire leg will accrue a tendency to collapse inwards. It does so in an attempt to work around these issues. And you can see this on yourself in real-time.

Firstly, stand up.

Next, keep your feet straight and rotate your knees outwards without your big toes lifting. You should see and feel those arches lift. Relax and collapse back in again and watch those beautiful arches flatten.

Split image showing re-orientation of collapsed arch with achilles tendonitis
Re-orientate a collapsed arch by rotating your knees out.

So if you can imagine putting an arch support underneath all this, you’re stopping something for sure, but not stopping anything if that makes sense? Those arches will consistently continue to collapse until the overall leg mechanics are resolved – whether they are in a supported environment or not.

Why Are Heeled Shoes Bad For Us?

Next, let’s take a heeled shoe. Almost every shoe today has a thick heel at the back. We aren’t just talking a six-inch Stilleto, but any simple raise at the back.

This is a very important feature of most shoes.

Cushioning the heel is supposed to help with shock absorption and comfort. In the short term it may help your running feel nicer and it may even help alleviate lower leg discomfort, but at what long-term cost?

The problem with any long term exposure to any heel is that the size of the heel equates to the exact amount of ankle range you don’t get to use. And over time you lose it.

The size of a shoe's heel equates to the exact amount of ankle range you don't get to use.Click To Tweet

The shoe may feel nicer in the short term because it supports a potential hole in your mechanics, but it will directly contribute to a number of issues down the track as your available ankle range of motion decreases.

Considering there is a strong clinical link between stiff ankles and a large number of lower leg issues, is there really a need for an additional heel at all?

For effect, here is a link to an article by the good folk at Runner’s World. It’s entitled “Best Running Shoes of 2017”.

Here is another one to the “10 Best Men’s Running Shoes for 2018.”

For women, here’s a link to an article on the “Best Running Shoes for Women.”

Notice that every single shoe has an unnecessary heel and curved toe-end. Some are monstrously thick.

Why Do We Have Heeled Shoes in the First Place?

This is a story for another day, but heels were introduced to running shoes to help support the fundamentally flawed “heel-strike” running pattern. To cut a very long story short, we begin to heel strike as compensation for a number of modern-day issues. The most impactful of which is often all the sitting we do.

These issues often begin at school-age and are maintained by a life of work, driving, couches and TVs. Our hips are now prone to being stiff and heel striking is a likely consequence.

If you think heel striking is normal, take off your shoes and try to heel strike your way across some concrete… it doesn’t work. Try sprinting with or without shoes and you’ll see the same.

The irony here is that we’ve subtly ended up this way over time. As our issues have accumulated we’ve attempted to create a solution. This shoe tech supports our already altered mechanical state, it doesn’t correct it.

What Makes a Good Shoe?

In an ideal world when talking about someone with already good mechanics, a good shoe needs to mimic the foot as closely as possible. We want:

  • Footwear that is self-securing so the foot can concentrate on being a foot, not holding material in place.
  • A lack of arch support so a healthy arch can do what it’s designed to do.
  • A flat shoe that allows the both the heel and toes to be in contact with the ground. Any heel is counterproductive as are shoes with a raised toe-end.
  • Flexible, malleable soles because the foot is flexible. Thanks to the modern world we still need a sole that is tough and durable.
  • A broader toe-end so that our toes can be toes. We don’t want them morphed into a pointy mess just for the sake of aesthetics.
  • Lightweight design that adds as little extra weight as possible to the leg.
  • A shoe that still looks good. It’s important to feel that you can still exist in our modern society without feeling silly for trying to do something relatively different.

In fairness it would be so much easier if we could just be barefoot all the time, but the state of modern terrain, hygiene and social standards currently make that hard. We need to find a suitable balance.

Barefoot Shoes

Barefoot (or minimalist) shoes are thankfully becoming more popular. The classic minimalist shoe most will have some awareness of are the “toed” shoes.

A shoe like the Vibram FiveFingers is an extreme example of what a minimalist shoe might look like. These shoes are fantastic for letting the feet do their thing.

They’re really just designed to protect you from the elements and not influence your foot mechanics. Those toes definitely get the chance to be toes, right!

In my opinion they’re great shoes, but they often deter people purely because they look different. Aesthetically, they make the transition to a toed shoe that little more awkward for someone.

Thankfully, there are more and more minimalist shoes and shoe companies coming out in the market place – represented by companies like VivoBarefoot.

Whether extreme barefoot shoes or a more simplistic one fit your personality, we need to aim to feel comfy in this type of shoe at some stage.

For context over the last 5-6 these have become my work shoes and these have become my running shoes/gym shoes. I can’t speak highly enough of them. They feel great.

Why Do My Barefoot Shoes Hurt?

This is probably the most important topic to cover.

If you jump straight in to a pair of barefoot shoes there’s every chance you might feel sore and uncomfortable. But make no mistake, this isn’t the shoe’s fault.

Without wanting to sound too harsh, it’s your fault – respectfully of course.

Any discomfort just means you are yet to undo years of accrued stiffness, tightness and weakness from traditional footwear and modern living.

Barefoot shoes will expose deteriorated mechanics. They will teach you something about yourself you can’t possibly learn in traditional shoes.

Barefoot shoes will expose deteriorated mechanicsClick To Tweet

Something that’s really hard to appreciate without looking for it.

They’ll give you great perspective on how you are really going. And that’s OK if you want to keep learning about yourself and improving.

If you work on improving your stiff and tight bits over time, you should ultimately expect to feel fantastic in barefoot shoes.

Running a marathon in minimalist shoes will need a higher level of normalized mechanics than simple walking but the idea is the same.

It’s on us to make the changes if we care enough. Shoes alone aren’t the answer, just the wallpaper.

I’ve covered some simple exercises that will help you transition to minimalist shoes in an article on Achilles Tendonitis. It’s not specifically shoe-related but it’s all relevant.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the best shoes for my feet?

The answer is simple but equally complicated. In an ideal world the best shoes for your feet are ones that leave the foot to do its own thing. They should not have a thick heel at the back, nor should they have a pointy toe-end. Controversially, they should not have arch support. If you feel you need these features to protect against pain and injury at the moment then know they are compensating for something you’re missing.

So with this in mind, the best shoe for you now is one that best supports any current mechanical dysfunction. But keep in mind you should aim to be able to tolerate minimalist or barefoot shoes in the future.

What shoes help with foot pain?

Foot pain is often a consequence of ankle stiffness and collapsing arches. So any shoe with a slight heel and arch support will help support most general foot complaints. And while these features may help those with foot pain get by, please do not mistake this for addressing the underlying problem. The idea with any supportive shoe is that you ultimately work hard to improve the cause of your foot pain so that you can progress to a more barefoot shoe eventually.

Is arch support important in my shoes?

Shoes with arch support generally help combat many of the lower leg and foot issues we face. Complaints like Plantar Fasciitis, Achilles tendonitis, bunions, Navicular bone stress fractures, Turf Toe, Shin Splints, some knee pain etc can all benefit from shoes with arch support due to their association with collapsing arches. Just remember that this is a short-term solution only. Make sure you also work on why those arches collapse in the first place.

How do you know if a shoe fits properly?

A shoe that fits properly should obviously feel comfortable. If you take them for a test walk they should not make you walk any differently to normal. There should be ample room for the toes to move and spread in all directions. Half a thumb’s width at the toe-end is a good rule of thumb. Yes your new shoes will give a little over time, but they should not feel restrictive at all the first time you put them on.

Are heels bad?

In short, yes. Any heel attached to any shoe will rob you of your basic ankle range of motion over time. There’s nothing wrong with wearing heels every now and again however prolonged exposure can set you up for any number of foot, ankle, shin, knee, hip and low back complaints in the future – all because of a little lost ankle range.

Why do minimalist shoes hurt my feet?

Minimalist shoes won’t create a new issue, just expose one you didn’t know you had. By definition minimalist shoes are a window into the whether you have basic range of motion, strength and conditioning – things easily lost when wearing built up modern shoes. It’s ok for minimalist shoes to make you feel uncomfortable initially. But the goal is to make sure you can tolerate them at some stage. This will mean you’re slowly regaining basic mobility, strength and function previously lost.

What are the best should for being on your feet all day?

The best shoes to wear if you are on your feet all day are the ones that best support any mechanical deficiencies you may have. If having to stand all day on a hard surface, a shoe with more cushioning makes sense. If you have to walk a lot, a shoe with arch support and a slight heel may work best if your feet and ankles are a little stiff. However as this article suggests, if you work hard on improving the mobility of your feet and ankles and spend a bit more time barefoot, any minimalist shoe should be the end goal eventually.

Conclusion

The nature of modern footwear is one of constant deterioration. The more time you spend in an accessorized shoe the stiffer and weaker you’ll likely become. It’s how the body works.

As it stands, both sides of the traditional vs minimalist shoe debate have really solid points to make.

If you just want to survive and feel good now, a “good shoe” will be what best supports any current issues you may have.

If you just want a better buffer against whatever underlying issues are there, then fair enough. It’s how most of us are currently living without realizing it.

But please remember those underlying issues won’t magically go away on their own, and may actually lead to more issues down the track.

If you progress to a minimalist shoe and feel crappy in some way – congratulations, you’ve just learned something about yourself. Something you can change.

Try to re-engage and re-awaken those desensitized, debilitated modern feet.

Work on restoring normal function to your feet and ankles and you’ll feel great in them eventually.

Don’t go straight from a built up beast to nothing overnight. Consider making your next pair of shoes one with less heel and less support. Make the next one after that less again. Take your time getting back to normal.

If nothing else, please consider being barefoot more often.

Ultimately, please keep an open mind. These ideas can seem awkward at first as they contradict a lot of today’s advice.

But with enough perspective you can hopefully appreciate that a good shoe is one that takes a back seat and lets your foot do what it’s meant to.

A good shoe is one that takes a back seat and lets your foot do what it's meant toClick To Tweet

Is this news to you? What are your thoughts on barefoot shoes? Let me know in the comments!

If this resonates with you, please consider giving it a share with a few kind words. It would be much appreciated.

Alternatively, join in the conversation over on the Your Wellness Nerd community forum.



3 thoughts on “What Makes a Good Shoe? Why Current Shoe Technology Is Destroying Your Feet”

  • I have read some of what you have read, I wear flat shoes with very little support, I walk around bare foot and run in Altra lone peaks with zero drop, best thing I ever did was change from a heeled running shoe to a flat shoe.

  • Very interesting.

    My dad has always had the theory that you wear oversized boots such that you are effectively walking around barefoot with a protective shield strapped to your foot. It seems to agree with most of what you have to say, save for being lightweight and flexible. There’s plenty of room to move and no perfectly contoured support. Dad’s method does accelerate sock wear, however, as your foot moves around inside the big boot.

    My shoe preference has always been for light and flexible with plenty of toe room. I spend much of my time barefoot and walk with my toes spread. My feet and ankles are strong and flexible as I use them as intended rather than insulating them within a ridiculously over-designed piece of footwear.

    My first multi-day hike was completed in a pair of $12 low-cut runners from Big W: a shoe I’d happily pay 10 times as much for if I could find it again. It was a light, slip-on runner with a knobbly sole for grip and was so flexible that it effectively functioned as a rubberised sole for my foot. I carried 25kg over 160km on gravel and sand in those shoes with no training and escaped with only a blister on my once broken and now permanently bent little toe, which is to be expected. Otherwise, my feet and legs were fine.

    There is much to be said for Nassim Taleb’s concept of anti-fragility. The term has been popularised of late in relation to the mental and psychological weakness of the snowflake generation, and adapts an obvious truth of the physical world – we need to train, to overcome adversity, in order to grow stronger – to the mind. This concept forms the basis of health and fitness, but has somehow been forgotten even in its original realm in search of a quick fix. Hiding from or masking problems is rarely the answer. This applies to both body and mind.

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